Atribut Sang Jendral

Ternyata, sepeninggal Jendral Soedirman, beliau masih meninggalkan benda-benda bersejarah yang dewasa ini terpampang di dinding-dinding Museum, penasaran?

TIK dan Trend IT? Sama saja, tuh....

Orang-orang bilang belajar TIK itu gak penting, karena susah! Eitts, siapa bilang? Yuk simak 'saweran' Filza tentang TIK!

Kata Rifi: SMA itu Seru Banget!

Rifi membungkus cerita SMA-nya dengan bungkusan warna-warni, penasaran bagaimana kisah SMA dia? Baca lebih lanjut

Belajar Singkat Bahasa Jepang, yuk!

Nashir ingin membagi-bagi ilmu 'Ke-Jepangannya' dengan caranya sendiri. Hemm, memangnya benar belajar bahasa Jepang itu tidak sulit?

Simak Review Museum Polisi!

Salah satu penyawer, Adipa Rizky, mengadakan kunjungan museum Polri di Blok M. Penasaran bagaimana kisah singkat 60 menit yang dialaminya?

The Museum of Science

A few months ago in July, I went to Japan and visited the Kansai region, or Osaka to be precise, under the youth exchange program that held by Japanese Government, JENESYS. During my visit in Osaka city, me and with other participant have visited many places. To name a few, Osaka Science Gas Museum is one of them.
Osaka Science Gas Museum built in Osaka city port, where the LNG or Liquefied Natural Gas that have been exported from across nations, including Indonesia (maybe all of the LNG reserve we have are being exported there), stored and processed before used as an energy across Japan for home, commercial, and Industry usages.
The museum complex is quite large since it’s also functioned as the depot for the gases itself. Since the museum is located at Osaka bay and there are harbours nearby, ships that carry the gases will directly sent them to gas depot for procession. It needs to be processed since the gases take different form when being transported overseas by ship and when they are being stored in gas depot.
Japan suffered an energy crisis state after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant radiation leak out when tsunami stroked eastern of Japan. Few Japanese east nuclear power plants also have been shutdown to prevent the same incident occur in another perfecture. Thus, the government have forced to search for alternatives energy sources solution for their home, commercial, and industry massive needs of energy. Liquefied Natural Gas or abbreviated as LNG is popular to become alternative energy source since it is quite environmental friendly and produce as much as energy like oil did.
First, what is LNG? Why we exported them to Japan not use it for ourselves? For both of you and my convenience, I will copy and paste the info straight away from our beloved Wikipedia:
Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted temporarily to liquid form for ease of storage or transport.
Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability, freezing and asphyxia.
The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure (maximum transport pressure set at around 25 kPa/3.6 psi) by cooling it to approximately −162 °C (−260 °F).
LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas (CNG) so that the energy density of LNG is 2.4 times that of CNG or 60% of that of diesel fuel. This makes LNG cost efficient to transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. Specially designed cryogenic sea vessels (LNG carriers) or cryogenic road tankers are used for its transport.
LNG is principally used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is regasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas. It can be used in natural gas vehicles, although it is more common to design vehicles to use compressed natural gas. Its relatively high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have prevented its widespread use in commercial applications.”
In last paragraph, we can gain information that LNG requires extensive advanced technology with no small feats to acquire. A something that us, Indonesian doesn’t have. So, since LNG proved to be worthless (currently) in our possession it will better if the gas were imported instead to Japan since they have the technology to process them
Now, we back to the museum itself. Although it’s named “gas science museum”, the museum was dedicated more than just science of gas, but also science of energies in general. There are many exhibit shows on how some energy normally works and how the energies used all the way from shipping to house family usage in all of Japan.
The Exhibit there is not like some usual museum exhibition that encases historical objects in glass display. But most of the exhibits were using some interactive way of displaying their objects. There are exhibit that show us how big air balloon work. Their most famous attraction is some kind of virtual and interactive theatre. The theatre would show us
Well, here is brief information that I copy pasted fro Osaka city’s official tourist website:
The Gas Science Museum, featuring a wide range of scientific exhibits relating to gases and energy, is designed to communicate to current and future generations the importance of preserving the global environment and the effective use of energy. The facility has many attractions that people of different ages can enjoy. Various displays at the Museum are interesting not only for adults, but also for children, especially elementary school students, who are often fascinated and even astonished to learn about energy through various programs. The facility has a theatre, where a movie about a robot competition is shown, and Labo Air and Labo Fire, where various experimental programs are available. In addition, at Experiment Station visitors can participate in experiments using liquefied natural gas at extremely low temperatures. Children watching the experiment around the laboratory table are amazed. These experiments and attractions help visitors recognize the various characteristics and advantages of natural gas, which they use every day without paying special attention. Natural gas is more environmentally friendly than other fossil fuels, and has the potential of becoming a main energy resource in future. At Eco Studio, elementary students looked slightly anxious when told that natural gas would be depleted by the time they retired, if consumption continued at the current pace. The Gas Science Museum offers entertaining and informative programs to help visitors of all ages realize what they can and should do in their daily lives to strike the best balance between energy use and environmental conservation. The director and attendants of the Museum, who are always smiley and friendly, tell us that it is not too late to start taking action for environmental conservation. Reservation required.”
Read the bolded part? Yes, you need to make reservation beforehands to visit this museum. It was natural though for the government to take precaution, since the museum stored massive amount of gasses will cause big mess of incident of anything wrong happens because of terrorist or simple tourist wrong doings.
Now I will tell you my travel experience there. Do not expect very much detail in my story since the visit take place in four or five months ago, so my memories must be fuzzy.
We (yes, we since I am visited Japan in group) arrived in Osaka Natural Gas Science museum in the middle of the day after some tiring visits to some places before. I forgot what kind of places we visited before the museum but that did not matter and not very important. We were greeted by the museum director and museum attendants as we arrived there. Before we began our tour, the director and the attendants brought us first to meeting hall for some introduction to the museum. From the introduction presentation that brought by the director, I learn many thing about gases, the importance of clean energy, some future possible alternatives energy, and how LNG being used as an alternatives energy after the energy crisis occurred.
As the director of the museum finished with his informative presentation, the attendants guide us to the museum bus so we could take a look around the museum and the whole gas depot complex.  One of the attendant, a beautiful with glasses accompanied us during the tour and for the rest of the day. During the tour, I could say that I am impressed by Japanese technology prowess and their effort to preserve ecological nature. There are gas depots as we look to the left and right. Pipelines are everywhere as far as we see them, connecting every depots and facilities in the complex. They have monitor station to watch over these pipes from any gas leakage. Beside metal structures and pipes  the museum and gas depot also have their own green area that filled with natural lifeform such as birds. Plants are also scattered across the complex.
Finished with complex tour on bus, the attendants direct us to some exhibit that show us the mapping of energy transportation from overseas shipping to home usage in Japan and the importance of LNG. The director and the attendants patiently explain it to us all the information there. From them, I learned how the energy form the gas made through from transportation overseas to homes in Japan.
Done with that, the attendant has to skipped through many of the museum exhibit because time restriction and brought directly us to the main attraction of the museum, the Theatre of Energy History. The theatre is somekind of show with the attendant look like directly interacted with the show although they are merely projection. The show was about history of energy usage in human history with two men from primitive era explaining them and the attendant ”help” them with some things. The show is very attractive and entertaining since I never saw anything like it before.
After the show at Magic Theatre was finished, the beautiful attendant with glasses brought us to the last event at Osaka National Gas Science museum visit. The show is about how liquid nitrogen can make rubber ball frozen solid and make it break apart like glasses because the temperature. The ball was really made from rubber but it break apart like glass when fall after it dipped into liquid nitrogen.
Our visit at Osaka Gas Science museum was all finished, and we have to leave for we must attend to the next place. The director personally accompanied us to the bus and with the attendants, he said goodbye to all of us and hoped for our next visit.
That was my story. Thanks for reading if you read them at all.

Me and National Museum

On Saturday, on May 28, 2011, I and my two friends, Gitasha and Wimala decided to visit the National Museum or the Museum better known as the Elephant Museum because at that museum's forecourt, there is a elephant statue made of bronze.That was a gift from the King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) from Thailand who visited the national museum in 1871.National Museum or Elephant Museum is located at Jalan Medan Merdeka Barat 12 Central Jakarta, near the National Monument or Monas which is also located at Jalan Medan Merdeka. Before going to the museum, me and my two friends meet at Pondok Indah Mall 2 to go together to the Elephant Museum. At 10:00 on the three of us set off from the PIM 2 to the National Museum or the Museum Gajah.
The Museum National is located on the side of Merdeka Square or Lapangan Merdeka and was built in 1862 at that time Dutch colonial administration realized about the great treasure of Indonesian cultural heritages and long history of Indonesia. The biggest surprised for the Western historians was the fact that historical record in Indonesia showing tremendous level of similarities with those in India, India and Asia mainland in general. The elements of India is the most interesting aspect at one side and the fact of Indonesian ethnography. All these facts had invited various experts to study Indonesia in more intensive and extensive effort. In the field of history the archaeologists, paleontologists, epigraphists, linguistic, paleographic and ceramologists have dedicated themselves for the light of Indonesian history, educated local student to understand their culture which had been a great historians such as Prof. Dr. Poerbatjaraka, Prof. Wiryosuparto, Prof Soekarto, Prof. Soekmono, Prof. I.B. Mantra and many others. In the field of Anthropology even more expert were born, although it is much later such as Prof. Koentjaraningrat.

Deeper study on Hindu tradition has brought into light the eat influence of Indian Epic such as Mahabharata and Ramayana in the life of Javanese and Balinese. Everywhere in the region of Indonesia were found the remains of ancient Hindu kingdoms and culture. The remains either in thee form of monuments and artifacts. This fact has encouraged the establishment of national museum as the center for Indonesian cultural study. As a national museum, their collection consist of ethnic map, Indonesian relief map, various ethnic cultural objects from cloths, music, house model, and relics. In the field of history, a big number of collection from ancient Hindu kingdoms, and Chinese ceramic from Hand dynasty.

On April 24, 1778, a group of Dutch intellectuals established a scientific institution under the name Bataviaasch Genotschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, (Batavia Society for Arts and Science). This private body had the aim of promoting research in the field of arts and sciences, especially in history, archaeology, ethnography and physics, and publish the various findings.
One of the founders - JCM Radermacher - donated building and a collection of cultural objects and books, which were of great value to start off a museum and library for the society. Due to the growing collections, General Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles built a new premises on Jalan Majapahit No. 3 at the beginning of the 19th century and named it the Literary Society. In the 1862 the Dutch East Indian government decided to build a new museum that would not only serve as an office but also could be used to house, preserve and display the collections.
The Museum was officially opened in 1868 and became known as Gedung Gajah (Elephant House) or Gedung Arca (House of Statues). It was called Gedung Gajah on account of the bronze elephant statue in the front yard donated by King Chulalongkorn from Thailand in 1871. It was also called Gedung Arca because a great variety of statues from different periods are on display in the house.
On February 29, 1950 the Institution became the Lembaga Kebudayaan Indonesia (Indonesian Culture Council) and on September 17, 1962 it was handed over to the Indonesian government and became the Museum Pusat (Central Museum). By decree of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 092/0/1979 of May 28, 1979 it was renamed the Museum Nasional. The Museum Nasional is not only a centre for research and study into the national and cultural heritage, but also functions as an educative, cultural and recreational information centre.
Currently the Museum Nasional houses collections of 109,342 objects under the categories of prehistory, archaeology, ethnography, numismatics-heraldic, geography and historical relics.
In 1994, the museum started with is expansion project. The new building, constructed in the same architectural style as the old, comprises an arena for theatrical performances and more spaces for exhibitions. The building is scheduled for completion this year.

The collections are the Prehistoric Age has long time frame, beginning from the presence of man until the emergence of writing differs in every part of the world. From the discovery of ancient human fossils in Indonesia, it is estimated that man lived here around one million years ago. Writing emerged before the 4th century.
Paleontology, the study of Prehistoric periods, explains the lifestyles of prehistoric civilizations through research into their fossilized remains and the artifacts that they made.
The Neolithic era emerged gradually between 2500 BC and 1500 BC when the vast number of people emigrated from the Asian mainland to the Malaysian peninsula, then to the island of Indonesia by sea. The immigrants built dwellings, planted rice on dry land or in irrigated fields and raised cattle. They formed agrarian village communities. This settled lifestyle enabled men to develop their skills in many areas, thus establishing a specific Neolithic culture, examples of which can be seen in this room.
Treasure Room
The Treasure Rooms are divided into two sections - the Archaeology Room and the Ethnography Room. There are about 2,00 items in the Museum's gold and silver collections, the majority of which were found accidentally rather than on organized digs.
Indonesia has been rich in gold and other precious metals for centuries. Artifacts were made using such processes as casting, soldering, riveting an sewing with gold wire, and were decorated by chiseling, the repousse technique (whereby the design is hammered from the inside of an object), and by adding detailed ornamentation.
Due to the biodegradability of the most materials used by the ancient Indonesian kingdoms, relatively little remains for scholars to base their study of these civilizations upon. As a result, since gold does not deteriorate, these objects are treasured not just for their value and decoration but also for their great historical importance. As well as a high level of culture, the gold items reveal a great deal about the life and rituals of the early kingdoms.
In 1990, farmers found a cache of treasure from java's classical Era ( 5th-15th century ) in Wonoboyo, Klaten, Central Java. These exquisite gold and silver items, collectively weighing more than 35 kg, are believed to have been buried in Lava in the early10th century, perhaps due to a major eruption of Mount Merapi. They comprise the largest find in Indonesia this century and are currently displayed in the showcase in the center of the Archaeology treasure room.
The collection in the Ethnography treasure room comprises objects from the 18th to the early 20th centuries. The artifacts are mostly crafted from 14-24 carat gold and many are adorned with precious stones.
Bronze Collection
Bronze is well-represented in the Museum and the collection, which comprises up to 3,199 pieces, is absolutely spectacular.
The Bronze Age in Indonesia is estimated as having begun around the st century BC, and it drastically changed man's way of life both practically and culturally. Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin, and as it has a low melting point, objects were either produced by forging (heating then beating the bronze) or by wax-casting techniques. Bronze axes, ceremonial items and jewelry were the most popular items made.
With the onset of the Classical Age production and casting processes improved, and techniques such as soldering were introduced. Bronze items became more varied, ranging from statues of Buddha for worship to domestic appliances, and their decoration more ornate. Bronze was also used to replace materials that were easily damaged, so the shape of domestic appliances, for example, did not radically change - a water jar would look the same in bronze as it did in terra cotta.
Stone Sculptures
Stone tools and statues have been made by Indonesian civilizations since prehistoric times. The gradual sophistication of these objects and tools used to create them are indicative of cultural progress.The Museum Nasional has a wealth of stone statues in many different forms and sizes, most notably relating to ancestral worship, Hindu gods and goddesses, kings and animals. The statues were usually put in temple alcoves or in the temple's main room (cellar), and the majority of them were discovered in Central Java and Sumatra. Volcanic andesite was most commonly used but many of the East Javanese statues made during the 14th and 15th centuries, were sculpted from sandstone or limestone. As a result of the Hindu-Buddhist influence that was prevalent in Indonesia between the 4th and the 10th centuries, statues created during this period were very similar to those made in East India. Sculptors (silpin). In India had to follow precise rules stated in the Silpasastra book; for example, eyes had to be shaped like lotus (padma) leaves, eyebrows like an archer's bow and arms like an elephants trunk. While these features were copied in Indonesia, the Silpasastra rules were generally not strictly adhered to, and after this period, especially during the Majapahit era (14th and 15th centuries ), statues made throughout the archipelago exuded a more 'Indonesian' style. In the Museum Nasional, Stone Sculpture Collections is included into the Archaeology Section.
Ceramic collection
The ceramics collection differentiates between artifacts originating from countries such as China, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar and Japan, and objects made in Indonesia or made in Indonesia or made out of terra cotta. This particular collection gives us a good insight into Indonesia's maritime trade over the countries.
Research indicates that the Chinese sailed to India via Indonesia as early as the Western Han period (205 BC to 220 AD) and that firm trade relation were subsequently established.
The islands of Indonesia were the source of many rare commodities and foreign trades were motivated to undertake long and risky sea voyages to get there. Many ships sank before reaching their journey's and, however.
Their non-perishable cargoes, such as ceramics, which would have been used as barter, were washed ashore. Some items were used as common household utensils but fine ceramics were more rare and much sought after. They become cherished heirlooms and were used during the specials ceremonies for birth, circumcision, marriage and death. Occasionally, they were specially commissioned for a private buyer or given as tributes to local dignitaries.
The nucleus of the Museum Nasional's foreign ceramic collection was donated by the Dutch philanthropist and collector, Egbert Willem van Orsoy de Flines, who also became the first ceramics curator of the Museum in 1959.
Although originating in other countries, the ceramics objects in the Museum collection were all found in Indonesia. As well being objects of great beauty, they form an important part of the nation's history.